Course Descriptions

Course Descriptions

Course Descriptions

The following are decriptions of all courses currently offered by the Department of Physics and Astronomy. For more information see the Rowan Course Catalog. For course availability, see the Section Tally Report from the Registrar's Office.

Physics (PHYS)

PHYS.00.120..........................................3 s.h.
Selected Topics in Physics
The content of this course varies to reflect the role of physics in society. A limited number of topics are selected from among the following: mechanics, thermodynamics, sound, light and optics, electricity and magnetism, electric circuits, modern physics or the investigation of the physics of applied technologies. It studies the fundatmental principles underlying the topics and considers connections to the physical and social environment.

PHYS.00.130..........................................1 s.h.
Building Momentum as a Physics Student at Rowan and Beyond
(Prerequisite: Major restriction to BA Physics, BS Physics, BS Biophysics)
This course will familiarize students with foundational topics in physics and biophysics, basic resources available, and skills needed for success as a student at Rowan University. Introductory topics in scientific study will be addressed including the scientific method, navigation of the scientific literature, and tips for scientific writing and presentation. The curriculum for each program and guidance on planning an appropriate academic path will be provided and discussed. Information on career postgraduate education paths available to graduates will be given to inform this planning, including specifics on Certificates of Undergraduate Studies, minors, concentrations, and dual-degree programs that may facilitate success for students in their future beyond Rowan. The course will also involve workshops and professional development exercises to help students build their critical professional skills (i.e. personal presentation, networking, self-assessment of skills, etc.).

PHYS.00.140..........................................4 s.h.
The Physics of Current Technologies (Lecture and Lab)
This course introduces contemporary concepts of physics through their application in commercially available technologies. The course mostly focuses on information storage technologies but actual course content evolves to reflect the specialties of the instructor. Concepts such as electrical resistance, magnetic fields, magnetic domains, electron tunneling, and assorted microscopic techniques will be introduced. Laboratories consist of hands-on activities including the imaging of magnetic information (magnetic domains), optical information (CD dyes) and individual atoms.

PHYS.00.150..........................................4 s.h.
Physics of Everyday Life (Lecture and Lab)
The goal of this course is to expose students with a non-science background to physics. The students will experience the excitement of physics by examining phenomena of our everyday environment. The historical development of such ideas will be studied as well. Topics selected for study include mechanics, matter, heat, sound, light, electricity magnetism, atomic and nuclear physics. Physics will be communicated in a conceptual framework along with straightforward algebraic and trigonometric formulations.

PHYS.00.175..........................................4 s.h.
Physics of Sound and Music (Lecture and Lab)
The goal of this course is to expose students to physics through its application to sound and music. The students will study these applications by examining the phenomena of voice, sound, hearing, musical instruments, acoustics, electronic technology, and reproduction of sound and music. The historical development of such topics will be studied as well.

PHYS.00.210..........................................4 s.h.
Physics I w/o Calculus (Lecture and Lab)
(Prerequisite: a score of at least 60 on the College Level Math Placement exam or MATH01.122 or co-requisite MATH01.130 or MATH01.140)
This course studies the basic principles of mechanics, heat, and fluids. Calculus is not used. The course emphasizes problem work involving the use of Algebra, Trigonometry, and Geometry.

PHYS.00.211..........................................4 s.h.
Physics II w/o Calculus (Lecture and Lab)
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.210 or PHYS 00.220)
This course studies the basics principles of electricity, magnetism, and light. Calculus is not used. The course emphasizes problem work involving the use of Algebra, Trigonometry, and Geometry.

PHYS.00.220..........................................4 s.h.
Introductory Mechanics (Lecture and Lab)
(Co/Prerequisite: MATH01.130 or MATH01.140)
This course studies the basic principles of mechanics and is equivalent to most calculus based introductory mechanics courses often entitled Physics I. The course is designed to cover introductory mechanics (Newton's laws, energy and momentum conservation, rotating systems, statics, gravity and simple harmonic motion) at a level appropriate for future scientists and engineers. The course includes a laboratory component and it emphasizes problem solving techniques.

PHYS.00.221..........................................4 s.h.
Introductory Thermodynamics, Fluids, Waves, & Optics (Lecture and Lab)
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.220 and Co/Prerequisite MATH01.131 or MATH01.141)
This introductory course studies the basic principles of thermodynamics, fluids, waves, and optics and their application. The concepts will be applied through problem solving and laboratory experiences. A large portion of the content of this course builds from the concept of conservation of energy covered in the introductory mechanics course. The course is required for any physical science and physics majors and recommended for those majoring in biochemistry, chemistry, biology, engineering, or mathematics. The specific topics covered include elastic properties of materials, fluid mechanics mechanical waves, sound, conduction of heat, kinetic theory of gasses, the laws of thermodynamics, light, geometric optics, interference and diffraction.

PHYS.00.222..........................................4 s.h.
Introductory Electricity & Magnetism (Lecture and Lab)
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.220 and Co/Prerequisite MATH01.131 or MATH01.141)
This course studies the basic principles of electricity and magnetism and is equivalent to most calculus based introductory electricity and magnetism courses often entitled Physics II. The course is designed to cover introductory electricity and magnetism (charge, current, potential, fields, AC and DC circuits, Maxwell's Equations, and electromagnetic waves) at a level appropriate for future scientists and engineers. The course includes a laboratory component and it emphasizes problem solving techniques.

PHYS.00.250........................................1–3 s.h.
Physics Research I
(Prereqisite: minimum 3.0 GPA within major/minor AND permission of instructor)
This course introduces and/or develops modern research techniques used in physics. Research is performed in collaboration with one or more faculty in an area of specialization of the faculty. Emphasis will be placed on developing research skills, developing technical writing skills, and the development of skills needed for scientific presentations.

PHYS.00.251........................................1–3 s.h.
Physics Research II
(Prereqisite: minimum 3.0 GPA within major/minor AND permission of instructor)
This course introduces and/or develops modern research techniques used in physics. Research is performed in collaboration with one or more faculty in an area of specialization of the faculty. Emphasis will be placed on developing research skills, developing technical writing skills, and the development of skills needed for scientific presentations.

PHYS.00.300..........................................4 s.h.
Modern Physics (Lecture and Lab)
(Prerequisite: [MATH01.131 or MATH01.141] and [PHYS.00.211 or PHYS 00.222])
This course covers modern physics developed since the turn of the 20th century. After a review of some classical physics, course topics include special relativity, wave and particle aspects of radiation, matter waves, models of the atom, ionization, spectra, x-rays, and introductory quantum theory. It also covers theories developed by Planck, Einstien, Rutherford, Bragg, Bohr, Compton, de Broglie, Pauli, Schrödinger, and Heisenberg.

PHYS.00.310..........................................4 s.h.
Analytical Mechanics
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300, MATH01.230)
This course teaches students Newtonian, Lagrangian, and Hamiltionian formulations of mechanics, and their applications to such problems as Central Force Motion, Linear and Nonlinear Oscillations, Collisions between particles, Noninertial Systems, Coupled Oscillations and Normal Coordinates, and Rigid Bodies.

PHYS.00.315..........................................3 s.h.
Instrumentation for Biomedical Sciences
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300 or or BMS 02230)
The design and use of advanced instrumentation are critical in all areas of the biomedical sciences for analysis of biomedical systems and for synthesis of new biomedical technologies. This course will familiarize students with a wide range of the instrumentation they are likely to encounter in a biomedical career. Various instruments will be examined with respect to: (1) Theoretical basis of the measurement or synthesis and relation to instrumentational architecture, (2) Implementation of the method and experimental design, and (3) Data interpretation and analysis. The course will integrate primary scientific literature and discuss the evolution of instrumentation with new technologies and/or applications. The course will include inspection of instruments and observation of experimental execution, providing students with experience over a broad range of modern biomedical instrumentation.

PHYS.00.320..........................................4 s.h.
Electricity and Magnetism I
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300, MATH01.230)
This course studies classical electromagnetism. Its topics include: the laws of electromagnetic force, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic induction, interaction of currents, and electromagnetic energy and waves.

PHYS.00.321..........................................3 s.h.
Electricity and Magnetism II
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.320)
This course studies advanced applications of Maxwell's equations. For example, the generation of electromagnetic radiation and its propagation through matter will be discussed. The connection between Maxwell's equations and the special theory of relativity will be emphasized.

PHYS.00.325..........................................4 s.h.
Electric Circuits (Lecture and Lab)
(Prerequisite: PHYS 00.300)
This course provides a lab-intensive introduction to electronic circuit design, construction, and troubleshooting, developing many of the analytical and laboratory skills needed to work with circuits commonly encountered in experimental physics research. Although the emphasis is on analog circuits, elementary digital circuits will be studied as time permits. A required final project integrates elements learned throughout the term.

PHYS.00.330..........................................3 s.h.
Mathematical Methods for Physics
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300 [may be taken concurrently], MATH01.230)
This course studies mathematical topics as they apply to physics: complex numbers, determinants and matrices, Fourier series, ordinary and partial differential equations.  Certain more advanced topics may be treated: calculus of variations, gamma and beta functions, coordinate transformations, tensor analysis, functions of complex variable, Legendre polynomials and Bessel functions.  The course will include computational as well as analytical methods.

PHYS.00.340..........................................4 s.h.
Optics and Light (Lecture and Lab)
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300)
This course studies the nature and propagation of light, dispersion, reflection and refraction at plane and spherical surfaces, lenses (thin and thick), aberrations of lenses and mirrors, optical instruments, polarization, diffraction and photometry. It also discusses modern developments and techniques (such as fiber optics, lasers, holography).

PHYS.00.345..........................................3 s.h.
Introduction to Optical Desgin
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300)
This course is intended to give an introduction to the fundamentals of optical design, including geometric optics, matrix theory, and aberration theory. Students will become proficient at utilizing merit functions and solve within an industry-standard optical design software, in order to conceptualize, design, optimize, analyze optical systems. This course will also cover an overview of traditional lens designs such as landscape lenses, periscopic lenses, and ocular lenses (eyepieces). It will also include selected advanced designs such as telescopes and spectrographs.

PHYS.00.347..........................................3 s.h.
Laser Physics
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.340)
This course is intended to give an introduction to the fundamentals of laser physics as well as a practical understanding of common laser designs and applications. Students will develop an understanding of the quantum nature of light and its interaction with matter and how these interactions can be manipulated to produce both pulsed and continuous-wave lasers, as well as their unique characteristics such as coherence, monochromaticity, and Gaussian beams. Students will get an overview of the pros and cons of various gas, solid-state, and diode lasers.

PHYS.00.350........................................1–3 s.h.
Physics Research III
(Prereqisite: PHYS.00.300 AND minimum 3.0 GPA within major/minor AND permission of instructor)
This course introduces and/or develops modern research techniques used in physics. Research is performed in collaboration with one or more faculty in an area of specialization of the faculty. Emphasis will be placed on developing research skills, developing technical writing skills, and the development of skills needed for scientific presentations.

PHYS.00.351........................................2 s.h.
Physics Research Methods I
(Co/prerequisites: PHYS.00.300, BS Physics Major with at least 60 s.h. completed and 2.5 GPA in PHYS.00.220, PHYS.00.221, and PHYS.00.222)
This course introduces students to contemporary research problems in Physics or Astronomy. Students will participate and learn the skills associated with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in Physics and Astronomy. Development of technical writing skills and scientific presentation skills will be emphasized.

PHYS.00.352........................................2 s.h.
Physics Research Methods II
(Prerequisites: PHYS.00.351)
This course is a continuation of PHYS.00.351 Physics Research Methods I and introduces students to contemporary research problems in Physics or Astronomy. Research creativity and skills are expected to be significantly more refined in this course in comparison to the first course in the sequence.

PHYS.00.360..........................................4 s.h.
Molecular Biophysics (Lecture and Lab)
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300 or MCB01.102)
This course is aimed at understanding the physics of biological systems. The goal of the course is to quantitatively define biological systems and their functions. Key emphasis will be placed on (1) understanding theories, laws, and axioms that govern systems and their behavior and (2) the use of physics to determine quantitative information about systems and their behaviors. For each topic, the basic laws of physics will be reviewed followed by their application to specific biomolecular and biological system examples. The laboratory component is aimed at giving students hands-on experience in measurement and observation for biological systems.

PHYS.00.361..........................................2 s.h.
Physics Learning Assistant for Introductory Mechanics
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300, 3.0 minimum GPA in intro physics courses and permission of instructor)
This upper-level physics course is designed to provide students with experience in solving laboratory problems and broaden their knowledge of basic physics. Students will gain this experience by 1) providing assistance to student groups during the laboratory activity, 2) preparing materials for laboratory activities, and 3) developing new laboratory activities. This course is recommended for all Physics and Physical Science students since it improves their depth of knowledge of physics while enhancing their communication skills. This specific course is geared toward the area of mechanics.

PHYS.00.362..........................................2 s.h.
Physics Learning Assistant for Thermodynamics, Fluids, Waves, and Optics
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300, 3.0 minimum GPA in intro physics courses and permission of instructor)
This upper-level physics course is designed to provide students with experience in solving laboratory problems and broaden their knowledge of basic physics. Students will gain this experience by 1) providing assistance to student groups during the laboratory activity, 2) preparing materials for laboratory activities, and 3) developing new laboratory activities. This course is recommended for all Physics and Physical Science students since it improves their depth of knowledge of physics while enhancing their communication skills. This specific course is geared toward the area of thermodynamics, fluids, waves, and optics.

PHYS.00.363..........................................2 s.h.
Physics Learning Assistant for Introductory Electricity & Magnetism
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300, 3.0 minimum GPA in intro physics courses and permission of instructor)
This upper-level physics course is designed to provide students with experience in solving laboratory problems and broaden their knowledge of basic physics. Students will gain this experience by 1) providing assistance to student groups during the laboratory activity, 2) preparing materials for laboratory activities, and 3) developing new laboratory activities. This course is recommended for all Physics and Physical Science students since it improves their depth of knowledge of physics while enhancing their communication skills. This specific course is geared toward the area of electricity and magnetism.

PHYS.00.371..........................................3 s.h.
Biophysics: Fundamentals of Biomaterials
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300 or MATH01.235 or MCB01.102 or permission of the instructor)
This course is aimed at applying material physics and technology to regulate and support biological systems and functions A goal of the course is to fundamentally understand variable biomaterials and their interactions with biological systems (cells, tissues, organs). A second goal is to use material physics and technology as a tool to understand biomaterials for artificial tissues and organs, or biophysical devices and sensors. Finally, students will learn and understand public healthcare policies, needs, and resources.

PHYS.00.375........................................4 s.h.
Introduction to Radiation Physics
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.360)
This course is aimed at the understanding of radiation, more specifically, ionizing radiation. The goal of this course is to understand the mechanisms, kinetics, behaviors of radiation and radioactive materials, and the fundamental properties of particulate and electromagnetic radiations and their interactions with matter. The course will include demonstrations and activities to show these interactions.

PHYS.00.410..........................................4 s.h.
Quantum Mechanics I
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300, MATH01.230)
This course will serve as an introducction to quantum mechanics. Students will learn the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and how to solve simple problems using quantum mechanics. Topics selected for study include the origins of quantum mechanics, the free particle in wave mechanics, particles in one-dimensional potentials, the axiomatic formulation of quantum physics, particles in three-dimensions, spin, and the Pauli exclusion principle.

PHYS.00.411..........................................3 s.h.
Quantum Mechanics II
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.410)
This course is a continuation of Quantum Mechanics I. Students will learn more advanced concepts and problems in quantum mechanics. Topics selected for study include the formalism of quantum mechanics, particles in three-dimensions, spin and angular momentum, quantum statistical mechanics, time-independent perturbation theory, time-dependent perturbation theory, and scattering. Some topics may overlap with the ones in Quantum Mechanics I, but are taught on a higher level.

PHYS.00.430..........................................3 s.h.
Statistical Physics
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300)
The student will study in detail the laws of thermodynamics. The statistical derivation of these laws wil be presented. Topics include: ideal gasses, classical and quantum distribution functions, phase transitions, and other special topics.

PHYS.00.440..........................................4 s.h.
Advanced Laboratory (Lecture and Lab)
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300)
This course introduces modern experimental techniques commonly used in physics. Experimental results will be correlated with existing theories. Technical writing skills will be developed and evaluated.

PHYS.00.450........................................1–3 s.h.
Physics Research IV
(Prereqisite: PHYS.00.300 AND minimum 3.0 GPA within major/minor AND permission of instructor)
This course introduces and/or develops modern research techniques used in physics. Research is performed in collaboration with one or more faculty in an area of specialization of the faculty. Emphasis will be placed on developing research skills, developing technical writing skills, and the development of skills needed for scientific presentations.

PHYS.00.451........................................2 s.h.
Biophysics Research I
(Prereqisite: PHYS.00.360)
This is the first course in a sequence of two courses providing meaningful research training for students majoring in Biophysics. Student research teams will work on current research problems in the biophysics field. The specific research problem will be developed and assigned by a research advisor. Student participants will develop a detailed knowledge of measurement techniques and limitations while also gaining an in-depth understanding of a current research area in the biophysics field. Students will be required to complete a literature search and review. Communication skills, both oral and written, will be emphasized.

PHYS.00.452........................................2 s.h.
Biophysics Research II
(Prereqisite: PHYS.00.451)
This is the second course in a sequence of two courses providing meaningful research training for students majoring in Biophysics. Student research teams will work on current research problems in the biophysics field. The specific research problem will be developed and assigned by a research advisor. Student participants will develop a detailed knowledge of measurement techniques and limitations while also gaining an in-depth understanding of a current research area in the biophysics field. Students will be required to complete a literature search and review. Communication skills, both oral and written, will be emphasized.

PHYS.00.470........................................3–4 s.h.
Selected Topics in Advanced Physics
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.300 or permission of instructor)
This course is aimed to expose students to advanced physics topics that are important for their career development and their involvement with faculty research. The topics include, but are not limited to, Solid State Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Occupational Physics, Special Relativity, and Elementary Particles. One topic from the above list will be chosen each time the course is offered.

PHYS.00.477........................................3 s.h.
Radiation: Effects & Applications
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.375)
This course is aimed at the understanding of radiation and its effects on various materials and the mechanics and kinetics that can cause damage. The goal of this course is to investigate the stress that ionizing radiation applies to materials and the subsequent applications which include medical use, radio- chemistry of water, energy transfer and dose, radio-pharmacy, environmental radiation, and material characterization. The course will also investigate the regulations that govern the beneficial use or radiation and radioactive materials.

PHYS.00.479........................................2 s.h.
Radiation Instrumentation
(Prerequisite: PHYS.00.375)
This course is aimed at training students at understanding radiation detection. This course is useful for students planning a career in health physics or medical physics. Radiation Instrumentation will introduce students to: methods to detect ionizing radiation using its effects, design and operation of various detectors, α-, β-, γ-particle monitoring, particle detection efficiency, personal dosimetry, and radiation shielding.

PHYS.00.499........................................1–4 s.h.
Independent Study-Physics

Astronomy (ASTR)

ASTR.11.100..........................................3 s.h.
Introductory Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies
This course focuses on the large-scale structures of the universe including stars, star clusters, nebulas, galaxies, and cosmology. To provide a well-rounded introduction to astronomy, additional topics include the nature of light, telescopes, and historical and modern observational perspectives. This course requires night viewing outside of class time.

ASTR.11.120..........................................4 s.h.
Introduction to Astronomy (Lecture and Lab)
This course is a descriptive study of the universe that emphasizes the physical concepts that explain astronomical phenomena. The evolutionary, structural, and dynamical aspects of the solar system, stars, nebulae, galaxies, and the entire universe are discussed. The laboratory experience has both quantitative and qualitative components that include outdoor observations of night sky objects, daytime solar observations, and computer simulations. There is occasional evening viewing outside of class.

ASTR.11.200..........................................3 s.h.
Introductory Astronomy: Solar System & Exoplanets
(Prerequisites: Score of 60 or higher on College Level Math Placement Exam, or MATH01.122 or MATH01.140 [math courses may be taken concurrently])
In the study of planetary science, the students will explore geology, chemistry, physics and astronomy in their applications to the composition, dynamics, atmospheres, surfaces, and magnetospheres of objects within the solar system. The search for life or conditions suitable for life in other parts of the solar system is a driving force of solar system exploration., thus biology is incorporated as well. This course will help the student develop skills necessary to discuss and write about science.

ASTR.11.230..........................................4 s.h.
Introductory Astrophysics (Lecture and Lab)
(Prerequisites: MATH01.130 or MATH01.140)
This course is an overview of astrophysics, the application of the laws of physics to interpret astronomical phenomena.  Topics include the Sun, star formation, properties of stars, stellar structure and evolution, supernovae, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, the Milky Way galaxy, the interstellar medium, normal galaxies, active galaxies and quasars, and cosmology.

ASTR.11.240..........................................4 s.h.
Observational Astronomy (Lecture and Lab)
(Prerequisites: ASTR11.230 and MATH01.130)
This course is a survey of current methods in observational astronomy. Topics include, but are not limited to, celestial coordinates, celestial navigation, the magnitude system, modern telescopes, CCD cameras, astronomical data, imaging software, solar observing, and planetarium operation. This course will familiarize students with the operation of a 0.4-meter telescope. Nighttime observational projects and oral presentations are part of the course.

ASTR.11.250........................................1–3 s.h.
Astronomy Research I
(Prereqisite: minimum 3.0 GPA within major/minor AND permission of instructor)
This course introduces and/or develops modern research techniques used in astronomy. Research is performed in collaboration with one or more faculty in an area of specialization of the faculty. Emphasis will be placed on developing research skills, developing technical writing skills, and the development of skills needed for scientific presentations.

ASTR.11.251........................................1–3 s.h.
Astronomy Research II
(Prereqisite: minimum 3.0 GPA within major/minor AND permission of instructor)
This course introduces and/or develops modern research techniques used in astronomy. Research is performed in collaboration with one or more faculty in an area of specialization of the faculty. Emphasis will be placed on developing research skills, developing technical writing skills, and the development of skills needed for scientific presentations.

ASTR.11.301..........................................3 s.h.
Planetary Astronomy
(Prerequisites: ASTR11.230 and PHYS.00.222)
The science of planetary systems, both solar and extra-solar, is examined. Topics include planet formation, radioactive dating, small-body dynamics, interactions of radiation with matter, tides, planetary interiors, atmospheres, and magnetospheres.

ASTR.11.302..........................................3 s.h.
Stellar Astrophysics
(Prerequisites: ASTR11.230 and PHYS.00.222)
This course presents the properties, structure, formation, evolution, and deaths of stars. The physics of stellar atmospheres and stellar spectroscopy is presented, and the development of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is examined. The theory of stellar structure is detailed including the process of stellar nucleosynthesis. Degenerate matter and the structure of collapsed stars are described. Other topics include: stellar pulsation, close binary systems, accretion, novae, supernovae, pulsars, black holes, and star clusters.

ASTR.11.303..........................................3 s.h.
Galactic Astronomy and Cosmology
(Prerequisites: ASTR11.230 and PHYS.00.222)
The structure, kinematics, formation, and evolution of the Milky Way Galaxy and other galaxies are studied. Elements of general relativity are introduced as the physics of supermassive black holes and active galaxies are examined. This course covers relativistic (Big Bang) cosmology, the large-scale structure of the Universe, the expansion history and fate of the Universe, and current estimates of the age of the Universe. Observations that measure the matter and energy content of the Universe are presented. Cosmic inflation, primordial nucleosynthesis, the Cosmic Microwave Background, and the Hubble flow are covered in depth.

ASTR.11.350........................................1–3 s.h.
Astronomy Research III
(Prereqisite: PHYS.00.300 AND minimum 3.0 GPA within major/minor AND permission of instructor)
This course introduces and/or develops modern research techniques used in astronomy. Research is performed in collaboration with one or more faculty in an area of specialization of the faculty. Emphasis will be placed on developing research skills, developing technical writing skills, and the development of skills needed for scientific presentations.

ASTR.11.450........................................1–3 s.h.
Astronomy Research IV
(Prereqisite: PHYS.00.300 AND minimum 3.0 GPA within major/minor AND permission of instructor)
This course introduces and/or develops modern research techniques used in astronomy. Research is performed in collaboration with one or more faculty in an area of specialization of the faculty. Emphasis will be placed on developing research skills, developing technical writing skills, and the development of skills needed for scientific presentations.

Physical Science (PHSC)

PHSC.01.110..........................................3 s.h.
Principles Of Physical Science
This course provides experiences and information that will develop a better understanding of the function and significance of science in today's world. It emphasizes the general principles of physics and stresses their influences in the development of all the physical sciences.

PHSC.01.310..........................................1–6 s.h.
Independent Study (Physical Science)
Students who enter the independent study program working under the supervision of a faculty member are required to identify and select an appropriate project area, develop an achievable plan, execute the project and prepare a presentation of the completed study.